BUY ONLINE OR CALL 020 8207 7000
GLOSSARY OF COMMON GLOBE TERMS
HANDMADE GLOBES & GORE ALIGNMENT: Please note that the gores of a globe (see below) are laid down by hand and pressure is applied also by hand when making them. For this reason no two globes are exactly the same and they are a specialist product. On this basis we do not swap globes where gores do not perfectly align, because this is the nature of the product.
ILLUMINATED GLOBES: Please note that occasionally, whilst in transit, the small light-bulb of your illuminated globe can work it's way slightly loose and will need tightening. This is a simple exercise. Simply pull the top of the meridian to one side (some have a small clip that needs to be released first), slide off the main globe-sphere and tighten the light-bulb. Your globe will now illuminate beautifully!
DUAL MAPPING: This applies to Illuminated Globes. When the light is on you can see the physical world, and then the light is off you can see the political country boundaries
EQUATOR: Imaginary Line Running east and west around the exact middle of the earth
PRIME MERIDIAN: Imaginary line running from pole to pole and passing through Greenwich (UK), home of the Royal Greenwich Observatory
ZERO POINT: The equator and the prime meridian intersect at this point "0". This is where all numbering starts for longitude & latitude lines.
LATITUDE: Imaginary lines running around the globe parallel to the equator at 10 or 15 degree increments.
LONGITUDE: Imaginary Lines running from pole to pole numbered in 15-degree increments from the Prime Meridian
23.5 DEGREES: The angle of the earths tilt as it flies through space. Most Replogle globes are made to reflect this angle.
MERIDIAN: A full or semi-circle metal arc used to hold the globe in place. Meridians are generally numbered in degrees from 0° at the equator to 90° at either pole.
TIME DIAL: If it is noon where you are, turn the time dial so that noon faces your global location. The other numbers on the dial now show the time in the rest of the world.
42° N, 88°W: Locations are identified on a globe by the point where the longitude and latitude lines intersect. 42° North, 88° West, for instance, is Replogle globes are produced, just outside of Chicago.
How Are Globes Manufactured?
There are 2 methods of globe manufacture. One is when the globe is acrylic - mainly illuminated globes. The map is screen printed onto the globe. In general this is a lower quality print than print on paper.
Most of our non-illuminated globes are made of recycled fibreboard and the map is printed on paper, called the gores, which is then laid onto the sphere using the same technique that has been applied for centuries. You will see seams and sometimes scoremarks and absolute perfection is not possible. However, this is the mark of a quality, traditionally made globe.
Why are globes tilted?
How do you find a place on a globe? How do you look up a place based on latitude and longitude?
Equator: Runs east and west around the exact middle of the globe.
Prime Meridian: Imaginary line running from pole to pole and passing through Greenwich, England.
Longitude: Imaginary lines running parallel with the prime meridian through each pole and numbered in 15º increments.
Latitude: Imaginary lines running around the globe parallel to the equator and are numbered at 10º or 15º increments.
What's the difference between the beige and blue colored globes?
The blue globes have ocean areas in blue and usually consist of highly contrasting, colorful, political boundaries. The youth market often prefers the realistic appearance of these globes.
How many different maps do are used?
What is that little round dial at the North Pole?
Why do some globes have a metal ring or semi-ring around them?
Which place names are used on our globes?
Tell me more about the raised relief (elevation) feature available on some globes.
Why a globe instead of an atlas?
How often does Replogle update its globe maps?
What is the purpose of a compass rose on a map?
The compass rose was traditionally used on early maps to designate wind direction and intensity at different parts of the world. Replogle continues to place a compass rose on many globe maps for its beauty and information.
What stones are used on our gemstone globes?
Can push pins be used in my press craft globe?
How does the "Touch On" feature work on my Replogle® 20" or 32" illuminated globe?
TAKING CARE OF YOUR GLOBE
Although our globes have a protective liquid-laminate coating applied to them, you may wish to clean it from time to time to remove dust, smears or fingerprints.
For a general dusting of the globe, we recommend a standard household dusting-cloth. These will also help to remove the static which can initially cause the dust to cling to the globe.
If your globe has any marks of the more stubborn kind, you may use a mild cleaning solution with care - but please, never use any alcohol or solvent based products as this could damage the surface of the globe or possibly fade the globe's colours.
Gemstone globes require special care and attention. Cleansers or polishes that contain chemicals could damage the globes surface and stand. We recommend that you use a soft cloth, slightly dampened with rubbing alcohol (also know as isopropyl alchohol). However, please do not use the rubbing alcohol on the Gemstone globe's stand as this can cause fading. Instead simply use a soft cotton cloth and a little bit of mild hand lotion.
If you are giving a globe as a gift - please pass these pointers on to the recipient, so they too can further extend the life of their new globe.
Our globes all take a standard light bulb. If a bulb that is too powerful is used, the interior of the globe will brown or even melt. Do not use more than a 75-watt for a 32" globe, 40-watt bulb for a 20" globe, and 15 watts for a 12" globe.
INTERESTING GLOBE FACTS
Globes fall into two broad categories: terrestrial and celestial. Terrestrial globes are spherical maps of the world, and Celestial Globes use the earth as an imaginary center of the universe to map the stars in spherical form. A globe is the only "true" map of the world because there is no distortion in relationships of areas, directions, or distances. The actual flattening of the true earth at its poles and "fattening" around the equator are such small, real distortions that they don't appear at the scale of most globes. The sphere constituting the globe is mounted on an axle and stand so it can be rotated like the earth. The axle's tilt (23.5°) is the same as Earth's rotation on its axis (relative to the plane in which it orbits the Sun).
There are many types of globes within the classification of terrestrial globes. A physical globe depicts Earth as the astronauts see it (except that they also see the intervening clouds and the shadows cast by the sun). Although physical globes emphasize natural land features (sometimes showing them in relief), the features of the bottom of the sea can also be shown. A political globe shows the nations of the world in a variety of colours as well as other features of civilization like locations of cities. Varieties of celestial globes extend to globes of the planets and the moon. Thanks to satellite imagery and other technological advances, the physical features of the world are now available in globe form on CD-ROM as the digital globe.
The ancient Greeks never gave credence to "flat earth" theories. They knew the world was spherical and made the first globes to depict their understanding of it. A Greek named Crates is credited with making the first globe in about 150 B.C. Our ancient ancestors were quick to adapt the principle of the globe to mapping the skies. The Romans made a celestial globe called the Farnese globe in 25 A.D. Because they used local marble for this feat, the globe survives today.
German geographer Martin Behaim made the earliest terrestrial globe that has survived. Behaim's accomplishment was timely; he made his globe in 1492, and Christopher Columbus was almost certainly aware of it and strengthened by it in his conviction to sail West to find the Orient. Today's globes would not be the same without the Flemish geographer Gerhard Kremer who is better known by the Latin form of his name, Gerardus Mercator. Mercator lived from 1512-1594 and was also a cartographer, mathematician, astronomer, and engraver. He is best known for having developed the type of map, now called a Mercator projection, in which all the meridians and longitudinal lines are parallel and the lines of latitude intersect these at right angles and are also parallel to each other. The Mercator projection simplified map reading; for instance, a navigator can plot a ship's course between any two points in a straight line and follow that course without changing compass direction. Mercator also widely influenced all other aspects of mapmaking; the world atlas is also his invention. He made Louvain, Belgium, the center of the world of cartography and scientific instruments; and, there, he and Myrica Frisius constructed terrestrial and celestial globes in 1535-1537.
In the past, globes were generally solid and made of a variety of materials including glass, marble, wood, and metal. Hollow globes, including those made in Mercator's day, were produced from thin metal sheets including copper. Today, globes are almost always hollow and can be made of any material that is both strong and lightweight. Cardboard, plastic, or metal can be used. A three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with paper pieces backed with foam rubber is manufactured for puzzle fanatics, plastic globes with snap-on continents and other features are learning tools for children, decorative globes of Waterford crystal can ornament desk tops, and inflatable globes (both terrestrial and celestial) are useful tools and toys.
The George F. Cram Company and Replogle Globes Inc. are the only two manufacturers of traditional globes in the United States. The George F. Cram Company has made maps since 1867 and globes since 1929. The company's manufacturing processes for producing the two basic types of globe remain largely unchanged in 70 years. One type is made of fiberboard or cardboard, and the illuminated globe is made of plastic that will withstand the heat from a light bulb that is placed inside the sphere to light it from the inside out. Recycled cardboard is used for the cardboard globes. Injection molding plastic is also used to partially fill the plastic globe. Specialty manufacturers produce all other parts for the globe. These include tape required to join the two globe hemispheres ("Equator tape"); the axis, stand, base, or other mounting; and electrical wiring and the bulb socket for the illuminated version.
Globes are made in various sizes. The 12in (30.5 cm) diameter globe (roughly the size of a basketball) is the most popular globe sold to schools and retailers, and the second most popular size is 16 in (40.6 cm) in diameter. Of all the globes sold, 80% of them are 12 in (30.5 cm) globes. Apart from distinctions like terrestrial, political, relief, celestial, etc., globes are made in a variety of colour schemes because they are made as ornamental as well as informative objects to decorate homes and offices. Interestingly, children prefer globes with blue oceans, while adults like non-blue globes, of which the antique or off-white colour is favoured.
Globe manufacturers decide on new product lines based on constant input from the marketplace. Teachers may be the most important source of new globe concepts because they request changes in globes as the curriculum is modified. Globe makers also watch design and fashion trends because many globes are spontaneous purchases made because of appearance, and purchasers expect ornamental globes to be available in designs to match their decors. The globes themselves don't necessarily change for reasons of fashion, but stands and display pedestals do. Obvious choices include selections in dark and light wood; current trends toward Southwestern-style decor and wrought iron work have made globes mounted in these styles popular.
Manufacturers also produce new globes as changes in our world occur. Each manufacturer's research staff monitors changes in data that may require artwork adjustments. Physical globes tend to change little simply because geologic processes are slow and small and don't appear at the scale of most globes (660 miles to the inch on a 12-inch globe). Political changes occur more rapidly but are still not frequent. In the past five years, only three political changes have affected world globes, with two in Africa and one in Europe. By making computerized changes to the artwork printed on the globe, corrections can be made almost instantaneously.
Once the globe pieces are die cut, they are pressed together to form half spheres, one for each hemisphere.
The two halves are glued together to form a globe, which is then laminated for durability.
Illuminated globes are made in a very similar manner except that the basic material is different. Artwork is printed on flat sheets of plastic substrate, this time with both hemispheres on the same sheet. The substrate is vacuum-formed into hemispheres by a one-of-a-kind machine that heats the plastic to thousands of degrees and sucks it into shape by applying a vacuum to the pliable plastic. The formed hemispheres are shipped offsite to an injection-molding factory where plastic is injected into them to harden the product. Space remains inside for the illumination source, and a hole is cut in Antarctica so the light bulb and socket can be inserted later. The two hemispheres are glued and taped together. The finished globe is so tough that it can actually be dribbled like a basketball on a concrete floor for five or six dribbles before it will break. The main advantages of owning an illuminated globe are that it is easier to read and it is more durable. The disadvantage is that cardboard used to make globes can be formed into a greater variety of products, including globes with topographic relief, and the vacuum-forming process for making the illuminated globes can only produce a smooth surface.
Technicians who manufacture globes are ISO 9000 certified and trained to ensure that each production step is consistent with established standards. Each production step is also a quality station.